Showing posts with label Authorization. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Authorization. Show all posts

Friday, January 4, 2019

6. Introducing Spring Security

If the web services that we are building require any level of authentication and authorization, it is better to understand Spring security context. Services that are properly built with security context can implement a better level of security at each method and endpoint level.
We want to handle all the security, authentication and, authorization related code in a single block so that managing it becomes easier.
The first step that we need to do is to add security dependencies in the pom.xml.
For authentication and authorization to make sense, we need to have a concept of a Role within the system. The roles are required to authorize the users for specific purposes. We define a set of roles in the form of a bitmask defined as an enum.

Now that we have defined Roles, we need to add few fields in our User class. We add a field mask for holding allowed roles and two different fields for authToken and expiry. We also add an index in the User entity.

We also need to add a class that implements GrantedAuthority interface. An authority in the spring security system is represented by a string and we use the Role enum name as the authority in the system.

We probably need to have two different types of authentication and authorization within the server. The first authentication and authorization will work with username and password and the second one will work with the token. Spring security requires two different entities to be defined for authentication and authorization. We need a Principal and a Provider class each for username and token authentication and authorization. Let's first look at the class required for authentication using username and password.  A principal is nothing but the abstraction of credentials that is flowing through spring security. We define it as below.

A provider is a class that provides the authentication and authorization functionality for a particular type. The username and password provider is defined as below. As we can see, the provider class extracts the credentials from the Principal and then makes sure the password is correct for the username. It also populates the list of roles granted to the user in the form of Authority.

Similarly, we define a Token principal. This principal just contains the token value that is received from the user.

We also define a token provider. The token provider looks up the user from the database by querying it from token and authenticates the user. In this example, we are making an implicit assumption that a token will be unique across all the users. If that were not to be the case, we will also have to pass the username or some other identifier for the user along with the token during authentication.

We also define a class RequestContext that will contain a set of thread local variables so that once authenticated, we will not need to look up the user details from the database. We will only need to hit the database in cases where we need to update the record in the User table.
We can see in both provider classes, after successful authentication of the user, the User is set into the thread local so that we can use it within the thread boundaries of that request.
Now the providers and principals are in place, we need to start using them. Rather than using them on a case to case basis, the best way is to define a filter which applies on each request and authentication and authorization can be done on all requests.

AuthenticationFilter provides the doFilter method which is called for each incoming request. As we can see within the doFilter method, if we receive a POST request to /authenticate URL we assume that to be a username and password authentication and we process it as a username and password authentication, in all other cases, it is assumed to be a token-based authentication. All the three parameters, username, password, and token are expected to be passed as headers.
Now we need to plug everything in so that it is called by the system. For that, we need to define a security configuration.
The SecurityConfiguration class is defined by extending WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter class. We override a few sets of methods. The first method defines a set of authentication providers that are available to the system.
    protected void configure(AuthenticationManagerBuilder auth) throws Exception {

The second method defines a set of URLs that would be ignored by the security system.
    public void configure(WebSecurity web) throws Exception {

The third method defines the security rules for all the requests.
    protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {

        http.addFilterBefore(new AuthenticationFilter(authenticationManager()), BasicAuthenticationFilter.class);

The configuration first disables CSRF and then sets a session management policy. After that, it declares that all the actuator endpoints need to be authenticated by a user having the ADMIN roles. Then all other users need to be authenticated. With this, every request coming into the system will be automatically authenticated and authorized. Now we can annotate our endpoints with specific roles so that unauthorized users can not make the calls. For example, we add the following annotation to our endpoint that we had defined earlier.

This annotation implies that a user with the role of USER can only call this endpoint. Any other user would not be able to call this endpoint.

This is also our AuthenticationEndpoint. This will need to be called when a user wants to login using username and password. This now provides us with a functioning service with spring security enabled. In future posts, we will provide more details on it.  The complete code for this post is available in github repository with version 1.0. Click here to download it.